Monday, March 23, 2020

Siera Fitzhugh Essays - Drug Policy Of The United States

Siera Fitzhugh Jennifer Vinsky English 002 February 20, 2018 The New Jim Crow Michelle Alexander, the author of "The New Jim Crow " takes a look at how discrimination is still and, in some ways , discrimination ha s gotten more conspicuous over the years . Alexander argues, "The criminal justice system was strategically employed to force African-Americans back into a system of extreme repression and control, a tactic that would continue to prove successful for generations to come " , (Alexander pg.34) and demonstrate s how many practices and beliefs from slavery times are just classified differently now. The labeling make s legal discrimination, but most people disregard it because it is covered with words such as "criminals," in order to legally enslave and separate an unhesitating represent of people. Language is everything and how you label it deviate s the way people judge it. This discrimination is in manifold areas of the U.S. authority. Alexander describes how dis crimination is still current in employment, education, the housing market, and voting rights. Alexander reveal s these discrimination practices by compar ing them to modern government systems to the old-fashioned Jim Crow laws. Alexander thinks that the racial caste system is basically the same, the only thing that has changed is what we call it today. Throughout the Alexander's book, her biggest argumentation on this new system is incarceration specifically. She uses a few admirable points to justify her claims. Alexander consult about the "War on Drugs." Alexander says that the "War on Drugs", is a policy put into effect through Reagan's reign in, increased African American imprisonment. Alexander also individualize that the "War on Drugs" was launched during a period where illegal drug usage was going down. As cocaine spreads rapidly throughout the unsatisfactory black communities' arrest and convictions were on the rise for drug offences. Alexander stated, "The impact of the drug war has been astounding. In less than thirty years, the U.S. penal population exploded from around 300,000 to more than 2 million, with drug convictions accounting for the majority of the increase (Alexander pg. 4)." All those arrests hardly received any helpful legal representation and a lot of people were forced into , according to Alexander . In my opinion, the War of Drugs is a war that is target ing blacks and other minorities as well as the poor across all racial demographics . Alexander shows how the CIA confessed that revolution ary armies in Nicaragua were smuggling drugs into the United States. They also acknowledged to not tolerate law enforcement to investigate the illegal drug networks. Most drug dealers, crack heads, or any other injurious names at the time were characterized as being "black". As stated by Alexander 's studies, it shows that all races use and sell illegal drugs about the same rank as African Americans do . She also uses surveys that state that youthful white Americans are more probable to be involved with drug crimes. This explains how the statistics are not represented inside of the U.S. prisons, which shows that there is a definite target on confine people of color. These are things many slaves did not have in the United States. Alexander makes a lot of good points and I agree with most of her book. I love the point that she compelled concerning President Barrack Obama. She discussed about how just because we have an African American president does not indicate that this country has conquered the concept of race. Race is a common fact whether we like to admit it or not. I feel as if that the modern Jim Crow system is still in effect even if there are African Americans that are barring to the regulation. Just like the original Jim Crow was used to guide the progression of African Americans and used as a system of lawful distinction, the recent Jim Crow uses those exact same concepts and just diversify the term we use. One race can't be more devoted to illegal activities than another race unless there is another factor involved. We are all the same. I agree with Alexander on the point of Barrack Obama not being an element to disprove the New Jim

Friday, March 6, 2020

The Other Side of the War Story Essays

The Other Side of the War Story Essays The Other Side of the War Story Essay The Other Side of the War Story Essay The Other Side of the War Story Thinking about the 1890s in the Philippines, what comes to mind are katipuneros in their straw hats, kamisochinos and red trousers, raising their bolos in the air, fighting for the freedom of the country basically, a bloody era of wars between the brave natives and the powerful conquistadores. It is probably only natural; since young, we have been taught in school that the Spaniards brought nothing in the country but bloodshed and indolence, aside from a few euphemisms now and then to appease the brutality for the childrens young minds. Truthfully, never have I thought that theres another side to the tale, a side where style and glamour exist despite the noises of revolution. For the Filipino commoners, the Indios as they were named by the Spaniards, the last years of the 19th century were probably nothing but a cycle of dreadful tasks and the sporadic uprisings. But for the elitists its a whole different story. Manila was transformed into a European dreamland, a place for enjoyment and leisure as songs and dances filled the streets and even most of the elegant houses. The passion of the Filipinos for music was taken to a whole new level. The essay Merriment Mix by Doreen Fernandez speaks of the musical scene of Old Manila in a very enchanting way the soothing sound of woodwinds as the military band plays a serenata accompanied by the blow of the cool sea breeze, the roads filled with carriages that brought in men and women elegantly dressed for an afternoon of strolling along the bay; or the soulful music of the piano coming from the house of the prominent mestizo echoing across the street, indicating a night of tertulia. Music, s it seemed, was highly associated to prestige and utmost sophistication. For the elites, and for me as well if it were possible, old Manila was the place to be. The thought of hearing the crisp sound of the violins even in the narrowest streets, joining clubs where skills and friendship were celebrated with sweets and copitas of wine, beautiful faces hidden behind abanicos, ladies clothed in elegant gowns while walking around with grace this is definitely my cup of tea. But what I would really want to experience is hearing the seranatas of a symphonic band as I stroll along the ld sea wall Calzada, watching the sunset and feeling the cool breeze. It is no doubt my definition of romantic, and the best way to relax after a day of hard work. If I could, I would turn Manila back to that time where everythings calm, classy and beautiful. But no matter how I dread the fast-paced city of Manila right now, the scorching heat, the traffic Jams and the bright lights and loud music of bars at midnight, I have to look at the bright side and appreciate its growth. Who knows, old Manila may come back someday, this time with freedom and no rumors of war. By seven_k8

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Report Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Report - Case Study Example Business intelligence is a tool that combines all equipment needed by decision makers to come up with intelligent managerial decisions. This tool enables proper monitoring of important business information which includes market trends, competitor monitoring and ensuring proper firm strategies. House Depot needs to mend its business information and data acquiring methods in order to improve their business performance. House Depot needs to connect its various warehouses to ensure a network system enabling sharing of inventory information. The network to be setup depends on the proximity of the warehouses to one another (EC-Council 60). In this case that warehouses are not in close proximity to enable a LAN connection. WAN network connection is the best to use in House Depot scenario. The WAN network established should be secured using the VPN protocols. Using virtual private network will ensure security in the network (EC-Council 54). Bus topology should be used to connect the computers in the warehouses to enable a domesticated LAN network. Research is meant to find out different entities in the market. If House Depot were to find a freeware in the course of their research they cannot claim ownership of it. Claiming ownership would be a form of embezzlement or grabbing personalized software. Furthermore, there is very little chance of discovering functional software that is not patented. In order to boost their technological systems if House Depot was to invent its own operational software it should be within the bounds of the law to avoid any claim of plagiarism. Acquiring information from the original software developer about the bounds of their patent will enable a healthy development with the original developers. The software characteristics can also be merged and merger terms set for all software presidents. Patenting of the software developed by House

Monday, February 3, 2020

Forms of Business Organizations and Int'l Law Essay

Forms of Business Organizations and Int'l Law - Essay Example Further, the death of either of the partners is enough reason to cause dissolution of the partnership regardless of whether the remaining partners resolve to continue or not. The fact that Raylan and Boyd had agreed orally to set up a partnership and share profits and expenses equally does not amount to an agreement in law because in absence of a written document containing provisions and guidelines about the partnership, the courts will apply the state law on partnerships (Bagley and Savage, 2010 chapter 20). (b)Party to be sued by Sassy Sauces if Justified BBQ refuses to pay at the time Raylan and Boyd are winding down the business The partnership will be the one to be sued by Sassy Sauces and bears full liability to pay for the supply of the BBQ sauce. A partnership is created expressly or implied by two or more people with a common understanding about capital input, sharing of profits and losses, efforts and labor as well as skills. Even with the implied agreement, decisions on t hird party transactions made by some partners without consent from the rest are binding on the partnership and not on the individual partners involved. In this case, Boyd entered into a third party transaction for the supply of BBQ sauce without the knowledge of Raylan. In spite of the contract price being overstated, the transaction was binding to the partnership and is viewed in the eyes of the law as though it was a consequence of a shared decision. Partners owe each other duty of care in regards to entering into irresponsible business transactions as Boyd did in order to get the attention of the receptionist in Sassy Sauces and they should hold in trust the property and profits of the partnership business. These fiduciary duties towards each other continue until the business is wound up completely (Bagley and Savage, 2010 chapter 20). (c)Responsibility for payment for the BBQ sauce if Justified BBQ was a corporation and went bankrupt The corporation would be the one to pay for t he BBQ sauce. In law, a corporation is a legal entity different from its owners and the liability of the shareholders is limited to the amount of investment in the corporation therefore the corporation carries the responsibility arising from actions of the shareholders and/or directors although the veil of incorporation may be pierced to determine the real owners and hold them personally liable. In the worst case scenario, Boyd as a shareholder would lose the amount of capital investment equivalent to the payment required by Sassy Sauces. Because ‘Justified BBQ’ has two owners only then it would most probably be a close or closely held corporation. If it as a close corporation in which case shareholders have an option in written agreement to run the day to day operations and not appoint directors, the actions of a shareholder (like Boyd in this case) would translate to personal liability because the veil of incorporation would ordinarily be lifted or pierced to establis h who are the real owners of the corporation involved in swindling the corporation of its resources and apportion the loss accordingly. In the case of a closely held corporation which is identifiable with lack of a market for its stock, greater responsibility is placed on the majority shareholders and the directors, in this case Ralyan. Boyd will still be held accountable for his actions because Ralyan did not a

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Characteristics of Real Time System

Characteristics of Real Time System ABSTRACT Scheduling refers to the set of policies and mechanism to control the order of work to be performed by a computer system. process scheduling in real time system has almost used many more algorithms like FIFO, Round ROBIN ,Uniprocessor Multiprocessor etc. The choices for these algorithms are simplicity and speed in the operating system but the cost to the system in the form of reliability and maintainability have not been assessed. In this paper we describe the distinguish characteristics of real time system which can be expressed as a function of time. This paper is also described in the form of a time driven model for a real time operating system and also provide a tool for measuring the effectiveness of a real time |system . For this model ,we have generated a real time system in which we measure a number of well known scheduling algorithms. To meet the real time constraints for scheduling the task different algorithms were used. Most of the real time system are designed using prio ty based preemptive scheduling and worst case execution time. INTRODUCTION In computer science ,scheduling is the procedure by which threads, process or given the access to system resources. The scheduling is mainly concerned with these things throughout: Total number of processes that complete their execution per unit time. Response time: when a request was submitted what amount of time takes when first response produced. Turnaround time: total time between completion and submission of process. Fairness: equal time to each process. In real time operating systems like embedded system the scheduler also perform that the process can meet deadline that is necessary for stabling the system. Schedular are sent to mobile devices and managed by an administrative back end. A common characteristic of many real-time systems isthat their requirements specification includes timing information in the form of deadlines. An acute deadline is represented in Figure 1. The timetaken to complete an event is mapped against the valuethisevent has to the system. Here value is loosely defined tomean thecontributionthisevent has to the systems objectives. With the computational event represented in Figure 1 this value is zero before the start time and returns to zero once the deadline is passed. The mapping of time to value between start-time and deadline is application dependent. Scheduling In a general purpose computer system a scheduler is considered good if it is fair and gives execution time to all tasks equally. When scheduling a real-time system what is most important is that all tasks meet their deadlines and are executed so that any task depending on them, meet their deadlines as well. Types of scheduling Network scheduling DISK Scheduling job scheduling Manual scheduling Multilevel queue scheduling First in first out Process scheduling Process scheduling is divided into four main types 1 long term scheduling which determines which programs are admitted to the system for execution and when, and which ones should be exited. Concept of scheduling in real time system 2 medium scheduling: Which determines when processes are to be a suspended and remain. 3 short term scheduling ordispatcher which determine which process have cpu resources and for how long. Process scheduling in computer operating system is instance of extensively studied problem from operation research which in form of producing a sequence of jobs which must a common resource. all decisions should be made dynamically for example all jobs have to be scheduled and processing time requirements are available at the start of sequence time =0 the new job will not come during processing. if it happens the priviouly computed job is invalidated and scheduling must be started overif is maintained. Now process scheduling in real time system can categorized into two categories: 1 periodic 2 aperiodic Periodic processes: which arrive at regular intervals are called periodic process and aperiodic are those which arrive at irregular. the main difference between real time systems and other computer system have not understood. the time to complete a process is important in all computer systems but in real time response time play a cruicial part in the correctness of the application software Real-time systems are divided into two classes: Hard real -time systems and soft real -time systems. Hard real-time systems are those whose deadlines must absolutely be met and system will be considered to have failed whereas soft real-time systems allow for some more deadlines, at least occasionally, to be missed with only adegradation performance but not a complete failure of the system. In judge a number of existing real time systems we study the DMA cycling ,interrupt processing blocking ang non-blocking. The deadline scheduler gives no reasonable control over the choice of which deadlines are delayed and which lead to unperictable failures result to the impact on reliability and maintainability of the real time system. real process completion is handled by step function in which there is no any value in completing the process after its deadline the characteristic of a real-time system is that correctness is determined not only by what is done, but when itis done, we propose to use a representation of a process completion value to measure the algorithms in real time system. Computational model consists a set of processes every process has a request time R ,Time interval c and avalue function R. Its value function become zero or negative. the value function may be negative at R,not rise above zero the request time R may be future time or past time . if request time r is future time then process is not scheduable but attributes in computations asre load in which current scheduling decisions are made classical algorithms are. Deadline:The earlist critical time in process at each decision point FIFO:The longest request set is executed in process at decision point Random:chosen from the request set and executed stack:the process with the smallest stack time is executed in each decision point SPT:The shortest completion time is executed in each decision point. There are many approaches for utilizing a time driven model in real time system. real time operating system support or modify the value for the process or the set of processes during run time. In this way application designr can set and modify scheduling policy for various systems. For describing these processes we assume primtives to creat and kill processes already exist. There are three real time interfaces Time control primitive: The arguments of these operating systems communicate the information needed to implement the model but the issue is the structure of informative that passed to the operating system. In single primitive each parameter would be flexible but in user might set inconsistent parametres. Scheduling policies: In real time operating system it is compulsory to provide a mechanism to express the scheduling model to implentour model. the system should also able to modify these policies to take advantage or flexibility of the system. Periodic policies: There is one way to describe a periodic policies to using optional arguments in a creative process. The creative Process make new instance of process at a specific node 5 ways for scheduling the task in real time systems. Real time system and scheduling techniques Real time scheduling techniques are divided into two main categories. One is called static scheduling techniqueAnd other is called dynamic scheduling technique. Dynamic may be static perioty or dynamic perioty. Static prioty is divided into two types 1 rate monolithic : rate-monotonic scheduling is a scheduling algorithm used in real- time operating systems with a static-priority scheduling class. [2] The static priorities are assigned on the basis of the cycle duration of the job: the shorter the cycle duration is, the higher is the jobs priority. These operating systems are generally preemptive and have deterministic guarantees with regard to response times. Rate monotonic analysis is used in conjunction with those systems to provide scheduling guarantees for a particular application. 2 deadline monolithic : Dynamic prioty is also divided into two types 1)earlist time first 2)least stack time first System and the task model Each type and unit of work that is scheduled and execute the system as a job. ALL the tasks are taken to be periodic. the system knows all the things about arrival time ,periodexecution time. the task are ready to execute if it arrives the system. IN soft real time system each task has a real positive value. The main goal of the task is to obtain a value as much as possible There are the two conditions if the task succeed the system acquire that value if the task is not succeed the ystem gain less value in a special case like soft real systems the task has nothing a vale Basic requirements of schedulars in real time operating system There are five basic requirements of scheduler in real time operating system Multitasking and preemptable In real time operating applications real time operating system should be multitask and preemtable. the scheduler are able to preempt any kind of task in the system and give the resources to task that the system needs it Dynamic deadline identification With the earlist deadline RTOS should be able to identify the task. deadline information may be converted to prioty levels for resource allocation predictable synchronization To communicate multiple threads among themselves in a timely fashionsynchronization mechanism also reqired and also the abiliy to lock or unlock is the resource to achieve dta integrity. Sufficient perioty levels The real time operating systems must also have a sufficient number of priority levels for effective implementation. Namelypurety,inheritance,ceiling protocol need sufficient prioty levels predefined latencies the timing of system call define the following specifications Task awitching latency :time to save the context of a current execution time and switch to another Interrupt latency:the time elaped between first instruction of the handler and execution time of the last instruction of the interrupt task Dynamic scheduling algorithm: Dynamic algorithm at runtime assign perioties based on the execution parametres of tasks the most important dynamic scheduling with puriotysscheduling algorithms are 1 EArlist deadline first algorithm The perioty of each task based on the value of itsdeadlinethe algorithm is simple and preemptive. 2 ACO Based scheduling algorithms. The ACO algorithms are computational models for the collective foraging behavior of ants . Ant is an agent that generate a path. ANT do not need synchronization. ant moves to the good looking neighbor for the crrent node probabaisatically Time Triggered When scheduling a distributed system using offline scheduling the whole system including the communication is scheduled before the start of the system giving a very rbust system but the cost of adding a new node is high, complete rescheduling of the whole system. To schedule a time-triggered distributed real-time system we use the same techniques as we did with the single processor system, but understandably with more complex graphs. For example we might have a precedence graph, where one task is preceded by several tasks on different nodes. Making a schedule that have a task precede by tasks on several nodes requires more of the system then of the schedule, even the best schedule will fail if the nodes time references is not synchronized and tasks are not executed in time. This requires all nodes to synchronize time with each other. This can be done at an application level like in normal distributed systems, with a common time reference with a communication protocol that handles tim e synchronization TTCAN, TTP and FlexRay to namea few. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS We have looked at the most commonly used scheduling techniques and communication protocols used in distributed realtimesystems. When we started this paper we where looking at doing a survey of everything related to distributed real-time systems,but found that to be a to vast and growing field so we narrowed our field to communication protocols and scheduling algorithms used in distributed real-time systems. During our research for this paper we have been looking atschedulers that are created to work better with the FlexRaycommunications bus or in a similar fashion. We have taken a real interest in distributed real-time systems and are looking forward to seeing the advances in scheduling and communication for distributed real-time systems and maybe one day join the research field our selves. With this paper we hoped to introduce the reader to the problem of scheduling real-time tasks in distributed systems. We presented the different interpretations of the problem and the various opti ons available to the solution designers. Our analysis of some of the existing scheduling algorithms tried to focus on the affect of the specific problem on the choices made in the solution. We hope that what we presented provides the reader with a broad understanding of the problem and a range available solutions. This paper was also aimed at providing the reader with a solid foundation for further research on the subject. Finally, we suggested possible future research directions. References 1 ^ Liu, C. L. ; Layland, J. (1973), Scheduling algorithms for multiprogramming in a hard real-time environment, Journal of the ACM 20 (1): 46–61, doi:10. 1145/321738. 321743. 1. N. Audsley, Survey: Scheduling Hard Real-Time Systems, Department of Computer Science, University of York (1990). 2. O. Babaoglu, K. Marzullo and F. B. Schneider, „„Priority Inversion and its Prevention in Real-Time Systems, PDCS Report No. 17, Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Bologna (1990). 3. J A. Bannister and K. S. Trivedi, „„Task Allocation in FaultTolerant Distributed Systems, ActaInformatica 20, pp. 261-281 (1983). 4. S. H. Bokhari and H. Shahid, „„A Shortest Tree Algorithm for Optimal Assignment Across Space and Time in a Distributed Processor System, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering SE-7(6), pp. 583-589 (1981). 5. A. Burns, Concurrent Programming in Ada, Ada Companion Series, Cambridge University Press,Cambridge (1985). 6. A. Burns, Programming in occam 2, Addison Wesley, Wokingham (1988). with time triggered communication. In Proceedings of ICC 2000, Amsterdam, 2000. [1] M. Behnam. Hierarchical real-time scheduling and synchronization. School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, M †alardalen University, 2008. [2] M. Dertouzos. Control robotics: The procedural control of physical processes. Information Processing, 74:807–813, 1974. [3] R. Dobrin and G. Fohler. Implementing off-line message scheduling on controller area network (can). In Proceedings of the 8th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, 2001. [4] D. Dolev and M. Warmuth. Scheduling precedence graphs of bounded height. J. Algorithms, 5(1):48–59, 1984. [5] W. Elmenreich and R. Ipp. Introduction to ttp/c and ttp/a. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Time-Triggered and Real-Time Communication, Manno, Switzerland, Dec. 2003. [6] F. Hartwich and et al. Can network [Ati98] Y. Atif and B. Hamidzadeh, â€Å"A Scalable Scheduling Algorithm for Real-Time Distributed Systems,† Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, May 26-29 1998, pp. 352-359. [Dar94] S. Darbha and D. P. Agrawal, â€Å"SDBS: A Task Duplication Based Optimal Scheduling Algorithm,† Proceedings of the Scalable High Performance Computing Conference, May 23-25 1994, pp. 756-763. [Dar96] S. Darbha and D. P. Agrawal, â€Å"Scalable Scheduling Algorithm for Distributed Memory Machines,† Proceedings of the 8th IEEE Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Processing, October 23-26 1996, pp. 84-91. [Khe97] A. Khemka and R. K. Shyamasundar, â€Å"An Optimal Multiprocessor Real-Time Scheduling Algorithm,† Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 43, 1997, pp. 37-45.   

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Summary Creating Shared Value

Creating Shared Value Michael E. Porter, Mark R. Kramer; Harvard Business Review Summary The article â€Å"Creating Shared Valueâ€Å", written by Michael E. Porter and Mark R. Kramer and published in the â€Å"Harvard Business Reviewâ€Å" in January 2011 deals with the idea of innovating the purpose of a corporation and their relationship to the government and social environment in order to identify unknown customer needs and expand the total pool of economic and social value.In the introduction the authors explain that the problem of the contemporary, narrowed capitalistic conception is the reduced trust that people have in business, which is seen as the reason for all kinds of environmental, societal and economic problems. In this neoclassical view, social responsibility is seen by businesses as a constraint in economic success which arises costs; conducting business as usual was seen as spending enough social benefit. Many companies tried to increase their profits by means o f restructuring and personnel reductions; at the same time, communities only perceived little benefit.But according to Kramer and Porter, the competitiveness of a company and the wealth of a community is closely interrelated. On the one hand, Firms need a strong social environment to have enough demand and to be able to benefit from public assets, on the other hand communities gain workplaces by having strong businesses. Firms set corporate responsibility programs only to improve their image and as cheap as possible, not because they regarded it as a productivity driver.Further more, they define themselves as â€Å"globalâ€Å" and often do not have a home base which the authors declare as â€Å"something profoundly importantâ€Å" in strategy theory in order to create value. Companies neglected the interrelation between a distinctive value creation and societal needs and focused more on the industry. For this reason the government had to arise laws restricting the success and c ompetitiveness of the companies, disregarding that nowadays firms in the global economy can easily move elsewhere.Porter and Kramer criticize the business models of most of the companies which focus on short-term profit maximization in contrast to long-term optimization, partially because the market forces them to do that, and did not pay attention to the most important customer needs and broader influences. It seemed that society and economy for a long time worked against each other. In the same time they request the companies to take the initiative in bringing business and society back together by focusing more on societal issues.This idea is not about charity but about understanding the markets and competition. The authors call this model the â€Å"principle of creating shared valueâ€Å". Increasing the shared value in this context is a self-interested concept to set policies and practices advancing the competitiveness of a company by means of enhancing the connection between economic as well as social conditions in their home community with the final goal to increase the total economic as well as societal value.A necessary condition for managers is to develop new skills and knowledge about social affairs, but the government also has to adapt in a way that gives companies the opportunity to act profitable under these circumstances. The authors go a step further and describe the three distinct ways every company has to create societal as well as economic value. They also interact in a way that improving in one of them means rising opportunities in the other. The first issue is reconceiving products and markets.It means that companies have to find out current unmet societal needs their products embody and try to fulfill them because innovations are nowadays the best business opportunities both in advanced and developing economies. An important point is that demand in this case is not static but very dynamic so that those opportunities arise frequently. Fir ms can reposition themselves quite often in order to absorb the grown potential. Especially in disadvantaged communities the demand is so high that firms can profit substantially by selling a large quantity to low prices; but sometimes new or redesigned roducts made for developing communities can also have applications to traditional markets. As a second way to create shared value the authors mention redefining and reexaminating productivity in the value chain which is largely influenced by societal issues. Misuse in those issues and externalities are costly both to the environment and the business. Firms can use synergies between economic and societal issues to raise satisfaction and create shared value.Previously, a change in environmental performance was avoided because it arose too many short-time expenses, but nowadays it is clear that it can even increase product quality and aviod costs. This new thinking is also enabled by renewals in technology and may unlock new, unexplored economic value. In a following step, Porter and Kramer mention parts of the value chain where changes can be made and were already observed, for example the reexamination of energy use or logistics, especially shipping routes. Besides, heightened environmental awareness ensures new methods of resource use and advantages all parts of the value chain.In the procurement area the traditional thinking of commoditization and price competition by only purchasing from small businesses in low wages countries changes into accessing to inputs and taking part in product production to ensure product quality and customer satisfaction. New distribution methods are developed to create shared value and lower environmental costs, e. g. iTunes or Kindle. Instead of holding down wage levels and diminishing health costs, many companies have learned that increasing the satisfaction and the welfare of their workers have a more positive impact on their results then called savings.Because of high transport ation and energy costs, a firm's location gains more and more in importance and now all steps of the value chain tend to be closer together. The third way to create shared value, after Kramer and Porter, is enabling the local cluster development. A cluster, a geographic concentration of businesses and institutions, is seen as a necessary condition to maintain productivity and competitiveness because no company can be self-contained. So business is dependent on their environment, e. g. consisting of nfrastructure and supporting companies, and has to work on it. A lack of framework conditions arise internal costs, such as costs of logistics or the possible pool of workers, and has to be identified and mended by the company. Another key condition is the formation of open and transparent markets. As mentioned before, the company's success is closely interrelated to their community; consequently a functioning cluster in their home base and further investments on it have multiplier effect s such as increasing demand and job creation.Their theory recognizes that societal needs define markets. Besides, social harms creating internal costs for firms can be prevented through increasing in technology and operations management. As a result, firms can even act more productive and expand their market environment. An important note is that the main goal is not to increase personal value but the total economic and social value, so this is not an issue about restructuring but developing shared value. While this article focuses more on the perspective of the companies, it also affects government and civil society.Considering all the facts creating shared value is a meaningful concept to influence simultaneously societal and economic progress in order to raise total benefits. But not all profits are equal. The authors claim profits involving a social purpose because to their opinion these profits endure; they call it â€Å"right kind of profitâ€Å". As result, Kramer and Porte r expect the next wave of global growth. The opportunities to create shared value are given, but perceiving the chance is up to the companies themselves and can be part of nearly every decision.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Louis XI of France Essay

Machiavelli’s suggestion that a ruler should rule like both a lion and a fox is exemplified to very different degrees with the monarchs Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain, and Louis XI of France. Isabella and Ferdinand were strong, ferocious leaders who implemented local and state level authority impressively. They also cleverly established a guilded appearance as religious figures connected through diplomatic alliance to the Catholic church. They follow Machiavelli’s suggestion to the T. Louis XI of France, tells a different tale. Although he was known as the â€Å"Spider King†, infamous of his scheming, he was cleverly created footholds in the capitalistic realm of his country. His greatest downfall was his lack of foresight, and sheepish tendencies toward reclusiveness and isolation. Isabella and Ferdinand were supreme rulers. They established extreme, and savage local authorities that suppressed violence in their local city levels. They also brutally enforced the reconquista, the exile of Jews and Muslims. This gave them the appearance of being fierce, and proud. They were able to properly govern their people, protecting them from violence also keeping Catholicism at its prime. Isabella and Ferdinand were also considerably sly and clever as well. They created the appearance that they were extreme religious fanatics, while in actuality they were not. This granted them support from their followers, and also allowed them to create alliances with the Catholic church. With such alliances like Pope Alexander, they were able to gain footholds with the choosing of the bishops not only in Spain, but also in the new American Hispanic territories. It can alos be taken into consideration that Isabella and Ferdinand were able to also put the crown at the center of their government by training men of the middle class in Roman law, so that they were capable of ruling on a royal council, removing all outside nobility and aristocratic influence. Yet again, another fox like move. Louis XI of France tells a different tale. He promoted many new industries for France. This includes the silk and weaving at the Lyons and Tours. By doing this he created a capitalistic gain in his part of the continent. It welcomed new craftsmen from all over to draw monetary gain into his country. It was a very clever and â€Å"fox like† move. Again Louis of France was known for is commercial treaties that he created and welcomed with England, Portugal, and the towns of the Hanseatic League. By doing this he created economic alliance with these areas. He was capable creating unestablished but relevant ties to both these areas. It created a constant supply and demand to also aid France’s finances. Without making it known, England and Portugal had the potential to become economically reliant on France, and it’s new industries. Yet another â€Å"fox like† attribute. Unfortunately what Louis XI had in â€Å"fox like† qualities, he lacked in â€Å"lion like† ones. Because of this he was often marked with the term â€Å"Spider King† and known for his scheming ways. He was also criticized for not being nobel or brave when it came to the country’s infantry. He disbanded it, and instead hired Swedish mercenaries instead. You can imagine how terrible this looked upon himself, not supporting France or its capabilities. Because of this, Louis XI of France was made to look a coward. As it has been established, Ferdinand and Isabella are extraordinary examples of Machiavelli’s suggestion. They were both militarily fierce, but also well admired through they involvement in the church, making them effective rulers. Louis XI on the other hand, was less fortunate. Because he leaned too heavily toward one side, it can be seen that he was often a less effective ruler. Although his economic power was admirable, his lack of integrity and support for his own country is seen as cowardly. It is said that he was considered a reclusive and isolated man, and few mourned his death.